Challenges in the Management of Chronic Urticaria
© World Allergy Organization; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Published: 15 March 2011
The term "chronic idiopathic urticaria" denotes a spectrum of conditions with different poorly understood pathogenetic mechanisms in which the release of histamine plays a role. Nonsedating second-generation H1 antihistamines are postulated to be the first line of treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria by national and international guidelines, but as control is not always achievable with the usually recommended doses, first-generation sedating antihistamines like hydroxyzine and diphenhydramine at high daily doses (200 mg) have been proposed as an alternative before resorting to treatment with systemic corticosteroids and other potentially hazardous agents. Our long time experience and recent research give us grounds to believe that increasing the doses of nonsedating H1 antihistamines up to fourfold improves significantly the chances of successful treatment. Our data suggest that the urticaria-associated discomfort is relieved by higher than conventional doses of levoce-tirizine and desloratadine in about 75% of the patients and that sedation/somnolence does not seem to be a major deterrent. The dose increase also improves the urticaria-specific quality of life. Contrary to the belief that individual patients may benefit from one antihistamine or another, we demonstrate that the drug with better ability to suppress the histamine skin effects in experiments in healthy volunteers (levocetirizine) is also superior in improving the different aspects of control of chronic urticaria (subjective and objective symptoms, quality of life) and that increasing its dose of up to fourfold may even paradoxically reduce the sense of sedation/somnolence in parallel with the relief of urticaria discomfort.
Defining the Topic
EAACI/GA(2)LEN/EDF/WOA Algorithm for Pharmacological Treatment of CIU
↓ If symptoms persist after 2 weeks:
nsAH updosing (up to 4 times)
↓ If symptoms persist after 1-4 weeks:
Add leukotriene antagonist or change nsAH
Exacerbation: systemic steroids (for 3-7 days)
↓ If symptoms persist after 1-4 weeks:
Add cyclosporine A, H2 antihistamine,a dapsone, omalizumab
Exacerbation: systemic steroids (for 3-7 days)
When analyzing the state-of-the-art of urticaria management, the guidelines have recognized deficits in the supporting evidence. In a recent overview of his extensive experience in urticaria treatment, Allen Kaplan, a leading expert in the field of urticaria, lists a number of misconceptions among the medical community and the lay public related to urticaria management and pinpoints controversies relating to the use of AH, which need to be addressed by specifically designed clinical studies. The present paper is focusing exclusively on the treatment of chronic urticaria with nsAH, as these drugs are suggested as the first line of treatment, but unresolved issues still remain because of the relative paucity of reliable evidence.
The Role of Histamine in CIU
Histamine is a low molecular weight amine synthesized from L-histidine by the enzyme histidine decarboxylase and plays a vital role in the regulation of many important functions of the organism related to circadian influences, adaptation to the environment, and stress. Conversely, histamine is intimately implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic and other diseases, which develop as a defective systemic trait and may have different organ expressions. Histamine exerts its multiple effects by coupling to receptors expressed on the membrane of cells in different tissues. Four different receptors have been identified and sequenced so far denoted sequentially as H1 to H4. The histamine effects in the skin associated with urticaria, particularly the wheals and the itch, are mediated through H1 receptors located on nerves and endothelial cells. A role in urticaria has been proposed also for the H4 receptors in the generation of pruritus and eosinophil chemotaxis. The histamine receptors exhibit stereochemical differences, which can be recognized by different chemical compounds, referred to as specific receptor agonists. A big proportion of these invert the original effects of histamine by rendering the receptor-G-protein complex inactive, which categorizes them as "inverse" agonists. However, as they abolish the effects of histamine, they are popularly known as histamine receptor antagonists or antihistamines.
The mechanisms at play in patients with chronic urticaria are much more complex than just release of histamine from basophils and mast cells triggered by a variety of pathways. Involvement of other mediators like leukotrienes, prostaglandins, kinins, anaphylatoxins, and chemokines is also occurring, shaping individual patterns in each particular case and determining the success of treatment. A cellular infiltrate similar to a late-phase IgE-mediated allergic reaction with ensuing therapeutic implications has been extensively reviewed. Still, in most cases histamine has a leading role in the pathogenesis of chronic urticaria, which is the reason for H1 AH to be proposed as first-line and mainstay treatment (Table 1).
Picking the Best Antihistamine for the Treatment of CIU
Within a period of 40 years since 1937, when Bovet and Staub described the first pharmaceutical formulation to counter the effects of histamine in a guinea pig, about 40 AH had been introduced for the treatment of nasal allergic and skin symptoms. They all had a short plasma half-life, were not very H1-receptor specific, caused significant central nervous system (CNS) adverse effects, and became subsequently known as first-generation H1 AH. Some of them like hydroxyzine and diphenhydramine had proven to be of particular benefit in urticaria and are still considered as possible choices in cases resistant to treatment. A significant step forward was the synthesis of more complex compounds with improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles: they hardly penetrated the blood-brain barrier, which makes them relatively free of the most bothersome adverse CNS effects (drowsiness, lassitude, dizziness, and incoordination), possessed higher specificity for the H1 receptors, and had longer half-life, allowing a once daily dosing regimen. They were referred to as second-generation H1-receptor antagonists, and whereas 2 of the earlier compounds (terfenedine and astemisol) were abandoned because of serious cardiac side effects, the "newest arrivals" (fexofenadine, desloratadine, and levocetirizine) took up the lead in prescription practices as "modern" second-generation drugs.
Ideally, an AH drug should bind to a maximal number of H1 receptors to ensure the best effect. Determinants for this to happen are the applied dose and the pharmoacokinetic properties of the separate formulations: bioavailability, plasma half-life, volume of distribution, and receptor affinity. Following this rationale, the second-generation nsAH should have a clear cut advantage over the first-generation ones. This is not, however, the case in everyday practice where nonexperts treat urticaria and prescribe first-generation drugs contrary to guidelines. At least in part this is due to the belief that sedation may be helpful in soothing the itch in urticaria patients.
The debate about the use of first-generation H1 AH is still alive because of some other arguments prompted by empirical experience. Thus, Allen Kaplan is favoring high doses of hydroxyzine and diphenhydramine if doubling the doses of second-generation nsAH does not achieve satisfactory control of symptoms[9, 15, 17]. In the absence of appropriate studies to provide conclusive evidence, he backs up his assertions with compelling reasoning:
The relatively lower specificity of the first-generation AH for the H1 receptors may prove an advantage as they may exert some additional beneficial effects through other mechanisms: antimuscarinic, anti-α-adrenergic, antiserotonin effects, and activity against H4 receptors.
Sedation, somnolence, and performance impairment with H1 AH are considered a limitation to their use. However, unlike other conditions where histamine plays a role, these features in urticaia patients are intimately associated with the nature of the disease, as sleep deprivation because of nighttime itch can be the real cause underlying them. Thus, sedating AH may turn out to have a paradoxal positive effect on the state of alertness.
The sedative effects on initial intake are short-lived and gradually wear off by day 4 of treatment with first- generation AH.
The alternative to sedation would be the prescription of corticosteroids and other more hazardous and expensive drugs like cyclosporine, methotrexate, sulfasalazine, intravenous gamma globulin, dapsone, hydroxychloroquine, colchicine, and cytoxan, with the ensuing deleterious risks in the long run.
This sound logic is backed up by decades of first-generation AH prescriptions, indicating that really high doses of some of the older drugs can be used to saturate all skin H1 receptors. Thus, Allen Kaplan advocates that up to 4 × 50 mg of hydroxyzine and diphenhydramine should be applied to increase the chances of success if doubling the standard dose of nsAH fails. This leads us to a total daily dose of 200 mg of these first-generations drugs, which is way too high compared with the 20-mg daily dose of cetirizine, if a speculative approximation of 10 mg of cetirizine corresponding to 30 mg of hydroxyzine (used in comparative studies) is assumed. The question emerges whether increasing the dose of nsAH high enough would prove helpful in controlling the urticaria symptoms. Studies with fexofenadine failed to show that increasing the dose from 60 to 240 mg makes a meaningful difference[20, 21]. However, a twofold increase of the standard dose of cetirizine was found effective in patients with cholinergic urticaria, a threefold increase of the cetirizine dose brought about some benefit in a small proportion of patients with chronic unremitting urticaria, and a fourfold increase of the recommended dose of desloratadine was proven effective in acquired cold urticaria.
A common belief is that patients might respond to one or another AH depending on their specific phenotype, rather than on the pharmacological characteristics of the different formulations. This type of reasoning prompts switching from one drug to another and also simultaneous intake of different AH. In a preceding study we compared the ability of increasing doses of levocetirizine and desloratadine to suppress the effects of intradermal histamine in healthy men. The results indicated that levocetirizine is significantly more effective than desloratadine in inhibiting the wheal and flare responses to histamine in human skin in vivo, with 1.25 mg of levocetirizine being more effective than 10 mg of desloratadine. This superior effectiveness of levocetirizine in the skin was confirmed in our above-described clinical study in chronic urticaria patients, in which 7 patients who failed to respond to 20 mg of desloratadine became symptom-free on levocetirizine, whereas none of the fewer therapeutic failures at 20 mg of levocetirizine benefited from the switchover to 20 mg of desloratadine. The higher efficacy of levocetirizine than that of desloratadine in CIU was also confirmed in a multicenter study of 886 patients using only the standard 5-mg dosage.
The relationship between subjective perceptions like discomfort because of urticaria, sedation/somnolence, and disease-specific quality of life is rather complex. On the basis of the relief of the discomfort because of urticaria, we could differentiate "low-dose responders," approximately 10% of the patients who responded to the standard dose of 5 mg, "nonresponders," about 15% who did not experience any improvement even at the highest 20-mg dose, and "high-dose responders," ranging in the gray zone between those 2 extremes making up 75% of the patients. In the majority of patients somnolence (measured on a 100-mm visual-analog scale at baseline and after each treatment step) did not change or decreased in the course of the incremental treatment. This finding was better expressed with levocetirizine, where also a significant correlation shaped up between the positive change in the perception of urticaria discomfort and the reduction of somnolence. The analysis of the quality of life questionnaires revealed improvement with the increasing doses of both drugs, still better outlined with levocetirizine.
The quoted study and the experience we have acquired during the past years in the treatment of chronic urticaria give us ground to believe that high enough doses of nsAH give the best chance of achieving control of the urticaria symptoms before resorting to other potentially more hazardous approaches. The higher doses of these drugs may also be associated with additional anti-inflammatory effects that may be relevant for many cases of chronic urticaria. Present and future formulations with the highest affinity for the skin should be given preference in more severe cases of chronic urticaria. The controversy about the use of first-generation versus second-generation H1 AH in chronic urticaria could be given an ultimate answer only if specifically designed comparative studies are carried out.
The contents of this article were presented as an invited World Allergy Organization Lecture at the First Middle East Asia Allergy Asthma and Immunology Congress (MEAAAIC) in Dubai, UAE, March 26-29, 2009, as part of the symposium, "Treatment of Chronic Allergies."
UCB provided an educational grant for the symposium.
- Greaves M: Chronic urticaria. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000, 105: 664-672. 10.1067/mai.2000.105706.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- O'Donnell BF, Lawlor F, Simpson J, Morgan M, Greaves MW: The impact of chronic urticaria on the quality of life. Br J Dermatol. 1997, 136: 197-201. 10.1111/j.1365-2133.1997.tb14895.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zuberbier T, Asero R, Bindslev-Jensen C, Walter Canonica G, Church MK, et al: EAACI/GA(2)LEN/EDF/WAO guideline: Definition, classification and diagnosis of urticaria. Allergy. 2009, 64: 1417-1426. 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02179.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Powell RJ, Du Toit GL, Siddique N, Leech SC, Dixon TA, et al: BSACI guidelines for the management of chronic urticaria and angio-oedema. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007, 37: 631-650. 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2007.02678.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Konstantinou GN, Asero R, Maurer M, Sabroe RA, Schmid-Grendelmeier P, Grattan CE: EAACI/GA(2)LEN task force consensus report: The autologous serum skin test in urticaria. Allergy. 2009, 64: 1256-1268. 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02132.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vonakis BM, Saini SS: New concepts in chronic urticaria. Curr Opin Immunol. 2008, 20: 709-716. 10.1016/j.coi.2008.09.005.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Leznoff A, Josse RG, Denburg J, Dolovich J: Association of chronic urticaria and angioedema with thyroid autoimmunity. Arch Dermatol. 1983, 119: 636-640. 10.1001/archderm.1983.01650320010007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zuberbier T, Asero R, Bindslev-Jensen C, Walter Canonica G, Church MK, et al: EAACI/GA(2)LEN/EDF/WAO guideline: Management of urticaria. Allergy. 2009, 64: 1427-1443. 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02178.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaplan AP: What the first 10,000 patients with chronic urticaria have taught me: A personal journey. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009, 123: 713-717. 10.1016/j.jaci.2008.10.050.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Parsons ME, Ganellin CR: Histamine and its receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2006, 147 ((Suppl 1)): S127-S135.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Petersen LJ, Church MK, Skov PS: Histamine is released in the wheal but not the flare following challenge of human skin in vivo: A micro-dialysis study. Clin Exp Allergy. 1997, 27: 284-295. 10.1046/j.1365-2222.1997.d01-502.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nguyen T, Shapiro D, George SR, Setola V, Lee DK, et al: Discovery of a novel member of the histamine receptor family. Mol Pharmacol. 2001, 59: 427-433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Leurs R, Church MK, Taglialatela M: H1-antihistamines: Inverse agonism, anti-inflammatory actions and cardiac effects. Clin Exp Allergy. 2002, 32: 489-498. 10.1046/j.0954-7894.2002.01314.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Friedmann PS: Assessment of urticaria and angio-oedema. Clin Exp Allergy. 1999, 29 (Suppl 3): 109-112.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaplan AP: Chronic urticaria: Pathogenesis and treatment. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004, 114: 465-474, quiz 475. 10.1016/j.jaci.2004.02.049.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Passalaqua G, Canonica GW, Bousquet J: Structure and classification of H1-antihistamines and overview of their activities. Histamine and H1-antihistamines in allergic disease. Edited by: Simons FER. 2002, New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., 65-100.Google Scholar
- Kaplan AP: Chronic urticaria and angioedema. N Engl J Med. 2002, 346: 175-179. 10.1056/NEJMcp011186.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Simons FER: Advances in H1-antihistamines. N Engl J Med. 2004, 351: 2203-2217. 10.1056/NEJMra033121.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ferrer M, Jáuregui I, Bartra J, Dávila I, del Cuvillo A, et al: Chronic urticaria: Do urticaria nonexperts implement treatment guidelines? A survey of adherence to published guidelines by nonexperts. Br J Dermatol. 2009, 160: 823-827. 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2008.08985.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Finn AF, Kaplan AP, Fretwell R, Qu R, Long J: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fexofenadine HCl in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999, 104: 1071-1078. 10.1016/S0091-6749(99)70091-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nelson HS, Reynolds R, Mason J: Fexofenadine HCl is safe and effective for treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2000, 84: 517-522. 10.1016/S1081-1206(10)62515-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zuberbier T, Münzberger C, Haustein U, Trippas E, Burtin B, Mariz SD, Henz BM: Double-blind crossover study of high-dose cetirizine in cholinergic urticaria. Dermatology. 1996, 193: 324-327. 10.1159/000246281.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Asero R: Chronic unremitting urticaria: Is the use of antihistamines above the licensed dose effective? A preliminary study of cetirizine at licensed and above-licensed doses. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2007, 32: 34-38.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Siebenhaar F, Degener F, Zuberbier T, Martus P, Maurer M: High-dose desloratadine decreases wheal volume and improves cold provocation thresholds compared with standard-dose treatment in patients with acquired cold urticaria: A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009, 123: 672-679. 10.1016/j.jaci.2008.12.008.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Staevska M, Popov TA, Kralimarkova T, Lazarova C, Kraeva S, et al: The effectiveness of levocetirizine and desloratadine in up to four-times conventional doses in difficult-to-treat urticaria. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010, 125: 676-682. 10.1016/j.jaci.2009.11.047.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baiardini I, Pasquali M, Braido F, Fumagalli F, Guerra L, Compalati E, et al: A new tool to evaluate the impact of chronic urticaria on quality of life: Chronic urticaria quality of life questionnaire (CU-Q2oL). Allergy. 2005, 60: 1073-1078. 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2005.00833.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Popov TA, Dumitrascu D, Bachvarova A, Bocsan C, Dimitrov V, Church MK: A comparison of levocetirizine and desloratadine in the histamine-induced wheal and flare response in human skin. in vivo. Inflamm Res. 2006, 55: 241-244. 10.1007/s00011-006-0075-z.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Potter PC, Kapp A, Maurer M, Guillet G, Jian AM, Hauptmann P, Finlay AY: Comparison of the efficacy of levocetirizine 5 mg and desloratadine 5 mg in chronic idiopathic urticaria patients. Allergy. 2009, 64: 596-604. 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2008.01893.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Assanasen P, Naclerio RM: Antiallergic anti-inflammatory effects of H1-antihistamines in humans. Clin Allergy Immunol. 2002, 17: 101-139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.