- Open Access
Probiotics in Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis
© World Allergy Organization; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
- Published: 15 September 2010
Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been done on role of probiotics as a treatment modality in allergic rhinitis. We conducted a review on the same. A systematic search of published literature was done. RCTs comparing effect of probiotics with placebo were included. A predefined set of outcome measures were assessed. Continuous data were expressed as pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Dichotomous data were expressed as odds ratio with 95% CI. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. RevMan version 5 was used for all the analyses. Seven RCTs were eligible for inclusion. Probiotic intake improved quality of life score in patients with allergic rhinitis [SMD -1.17 (95% CI -1.47, -0.86; P < 0.00001)]. Other parameter that improved with probiotic intake was decrease in the number of episodes of rhinitis per year. There was no significant change in blood or immunologic parameters in the probiotic group, SMD -0.10 (95% CI -0.26, 0.06; P = 0.22). Adverse events were not significant. Probiotic therapy might be useful in rhinitis, but the present data do not allow any treatment recommendations.
- respiratory allergy
- quality of life
- clinical trials
In the past 4 decades, there has been a marked increase in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) in urban settings and a smaller rise in rural areas. In prosperous societies, 20-40% of children suffer from AR . There is currently no cure for, though a wide range of treatments are employed to control the symptoms. Many of the treatment modalities do not act through modification of inflammatory pathways which underlies the pathophygiologic basis of these diseases.
Probiotics are live micro-organisms that confer a beneficial physiological effect on the host when administered in adequate amounts . Limited evidence from systematic reviews shows that probiotics are beneficial for treating infectious diarrhea, preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and treating vaginal infections in pregnancy [3–5]. They have been formally investigated in a number of clinical trials for the treatment of seasonal and perennial AR with variable results. The aim of the present paper is to find whether probiotics are effective in treatment of AR or not.
Criteria for Considering Studies for This Review
Types of Studies
Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials (RCTs).
Types of Participants
Participants in trials were of either sex and of any age.
Types of Interventions
Interventions consisted of daily treatment with probiotics or placebo (no probiotic bacteria), used for > 2 weeks, as an additive to standard antiallergic medications. All formulations of probiotics (irrespective of the type, strain, and concentration) were considered.
Types of Outcome Measures
Quality of life score at the end of treatment
Time (months) free from episodes.
Mean duration of an episode.
Number of episodes per year.
Changes in blood parameters/immunologic markers.
Time or duration was defined was defined as number of days to resolution of specific outcome from initiation of treatment. Change in symptom score was defined as the change in total score over days per week. If the data were not available in the required format, the authors were contacted for the information.
Search Methods for Identification of Studies
We systematically searched Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE and previous reviews including cross references (all articles referenced), abstracts, and conference proceedings for all relevant articles till June 2010. Following keywords: "probiotics" OR "lactobacillus" OR "bifidobacterium" OR "bacterio-therapy" OR "fermented milk" OR "lactic acid bacteria" AND "supplement" OR "treatment" AND "allergy" OR "respiratory allergy" OR "allergic rhinitis" AND "children" OR "pediatric" OR "adults" AND "clinical trial" OR "randomized controlled trial" were used for retrieval of relevant articles. No language restrictions were applied. Two investigators carried out the search independently. We then combined all the searches and retrieved the relevant articles. Manual search was made by going through the reference lists of the retrieved articles and through Index Medicus and key allergy, asthma, and immunology journals.
Data Collection and Analysis
Was the study described as randomized? (0 = no; 1 = yes)
Was the study described as double-blind? (0 = no; 1 = yes)
Was there a description of withdrawals and drop-outs? (0 = no; 1 = yes)
Was the method of randomization well described and appropriate? (0 = no; 1 = yes)
Was the method of double blinding well described and appropriate? (0 = no; 1 = yes)
Deduct 1 point if methods for randomization or blinding were inappropriate.
Out of maximum possible score of 5, studies with scores ≥ 3 are supposed to be of good qualities were included in the analysis.
Two review authors independently reviewed the results for inclusion in the analysis. Design of the trial, comparator, characteristics of study participants, number of participants, type of intervention (dose, duration), and major outcomes evaluated. Differences about study quality were resolved through discussion. We recorded data on a prestructured data extraction form. We assessed publication bias using the Cochrane Collaboration's 'Risk of bias' tool.
Characteristics of Included Studies
1) 90 subjects (probiotics = 60, placebo = 30) in 3 groups
2) Age (yrs) 16.07 ± 2.11 (live), 14.50 ± 1.78 (heat-killed), 16.60 ± 2.02 (placebo)
3) Allergic rhinitis symptoms for > 1 year and sensitization to house dust mites
1) Lactobacillus paracasei (5 × 109 cfu/capsule)
2) 2 capsules/d of live, heat killed, and placebo capsules in 3 groups
3) Total duration = 30 days
Primary: change in symptom scores on the modified PRQLQ from baseline following treatment
No drop-out from study
1) 80 children (probiotics = 60, placebo = 20)
2) Age (yrs) 15.87 ± 1.53 (intervention) and 14.00 ± 1.90 (placebo)
3) Allergic rhinitis symptoms for > 1 year and sensitization to house dust mites
1) Lactobacillus paracasei-33 (2 × 109 cfu/200 ml)
2) 200-400 mL/d
3) Total duration = 30 days
Primary: the change in symptom scores of the modified PRQLQ
No drop-out from study
1) 187 children (probiotics = 92, placebo = 95)
2) Age 2-5 years
3) Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) and Allergic Rhinitis and its guidelines used
1) Lactobacillus bulgaricus, 107cfu/ml, Streptococcus thermophilus, 108 cfu/ml and L. casei 108 cfu/ml
2) 100 mL/d
3) Total duration = 12 months
Number of days free from episodes of asthma and/or rhinitis, and cumulative number and duration of episodes, change in immunologic profile
Participants were using standard asthma and allergic medication, 29 patients LFU
1) 120 subjects (probiotics = 60, placebo = 60)
2) Age range (yr); intervention (39.3 ± 8.0) and placebo (39.5 ± 10.9)
3) Having specific IgE for JCP and symptomatology defined by the Japanese society of Allergology
1) Lactobacillus casei shirota (4 × 1010 cfu/80 mL)
2) 80 mL/d
3) Total duration = 8 weeks
Change in SMS, immunological profile and any side-effect noted
Standard allergy medications used by subjects, 11 patients LFU
1) 40 adult subjects (probiotics = 20, placebo = 20)
2) Age range; 23-61 years (intervention) and 24-55 years (placebo)
3) More than 2-year clinical history of JCPsis and presence of anti-JCP-IgE
1) Bifidobacterium longum536 (BB536); 3.5 ± 2.4 × 108 cfu/100 g
2) 200 g/d
3) Total duration = 14 weeks
Effect on subjective symptoms score, any effect on blood parameters
Standard care for allergic symptoms
1) 44 adult subjects (probiotics = 22, (probiotics = 22, placebo = 22)
2) Age range; 22 to 48 years (placebo) and 26 to 57 years (intervention)
3) 2-year clinical history of JCPsis and the presence of anti-JCP-IgE
1) BB536 powder 5 × 1010 cfu/2 g
2) Twice daily
3) Total duration = 13 weeks
Effect on subjective symptom scores and blood parameters
Standard care for allergic symptoms. 11 patients LFU
1) 49 adult subjects (probiotics = 25, plaebo = 24)
2) Age range was 34.0 ± 3.4 years (intervention) and 36.9 ± 3.0 yrs (placebo)
3) Allergic rhinitis (defined by the Japanese Society of Allergology) and high IgE antibody against house dust or house dust mite
1) Lactobacillus Acidophilus L-92 (3 × 1010 cfu/100 mL)
2) 100 mL/d
3) Total duration = 8 weeks
Change in SMS (both nasal and ocular) value. Any change in nasal cavity findings and blood parameters
Standard allergy medications used, 3 patients LFU
Continuous data were expressed as mean (SD) and standardized mean difference (SMD) was obtained. The data from various studies were pooled and expressed as pooled SMD with 95% confidence interval (CI). Dichotomous data were expressed as odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI. P value < 0.05 was considered significant. A fixed effects model was initially conducted. If significant heterogeneity existed between trials, potential sources of heterogeneity were considered and where appropriate a random effects model was used. Inverted funnel plot was generated for assessment of publication bias. RevMan (Version 5) was used for all the analyses.
Primary Outcome Measure (Figure 2)
Quality of Life Score at the End of Treatment
Secondary Outcome Measures
The results could not be pooled (except for blood/immunologic parameters) as there were single study reports.
Time (Months) Free From the Episodes
Probiotic intake has no effect on the time free from episodes of rhinitis. The mean (95% CI) time free from episodes being 4.1 (3.1 to 5.0) months in the intervention group versus 3.3 (2.4 to 4.3) months in the control group (P value = 0.9).
Mean Duration of an Episode
There was no significant difference between intervention and control group, [mean 1.02 (95% CI -0.27 to 2.32)].
Number of Episodes Per Year
The episodes of rhinitis were significantly lower in the intervention group with an adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) of 0.39 (0.19 to 0.82, P < 0.01).
Changes in Blood or Immunologic Parameters
Data from 5 studies including 372 patients were used for this analysis [9–13]. Overall there was no significant change in blood or immunologic parameters in the probiotic group, SMD -0.10 (95% CI -0.26, 0.06; P = 0.22).
Side-Effects Noted (If Any)
None of the 7 studies reported a definition of what constituted an adverse event. Two of the 3 studies, that did monitor for adverse events reported absence of adverse events [7, 8]. The third, reported 14 minor adverse events (including cold, diarrhea, vomiting) but not the group (treatment or control) in which they occurred .
In the present review, treatment with probiotic was shown to improve the quality of life score of patients with AR at the end of treatment. Other outcome showing improvement with probiotic treatment was decrease in the number of episodes of rhinitis per year. Pooling could not be undertaken for many of the outcomes, as studies did not follow a standard format for reporting of clinical trials. Many reasons could account for the different outcomes among studies wherever pooling was done in these trials and these are: varied dose and intake period, the type and severity of the symptoms involved were different, seasonal variation of allergic symptoms and most importantly, the species and strains of the probiotics differ.
As atopic disease have seasonal variation of symptoms, the results could have been affected by time period of a particular study. Three studies reported effects of probiotics on allergic symptoms induced during pollen season of Japanese cedar pollen (JCP) in patients with history of such allergy (confirmed by symptoms and laboratory tests) [10–12]. In these trials, participants were administered probiotics on/before the onset of pollen season and were continued until the completion of the pollen season. BB536-supplemented yogurt has been demonstrated to have a pronounced promoting effect on intestinal environments after 2 weeks of intake at a dose of 100 g per day . For this reason, in these studies probiotics was administrated before pollen exposure. Another important reason is the difference regarding the validity of the clinical effects of lactic acid bacteria among species and strains. In fact, in vitro studies using human mononuclear cells have indicated that there are strain-dependent differences in the ability of lactic acid bacteria to induce immunoregulatory monokines such as interleukin 12 . Contribution of the species- and strain-specific nature of lactic acid bacteria on the efficacy of improving allergic symptoms should be considered.
Placebo was poorly defined in most of the studies. Many studies used nonfermented milk or plain yogurt as placebo. A better control would have been fermented milk without the addition of the probiotic bacteria or sterilized fermented milk . The studies demonstrated the effect of fermented milk containing a specific probiotic strain, but it is not possible to conclude about the effect of probiotic bacteria per se. Indeed, studies state that plain yoghurt has some antiallergic effect and may have impact on rhinitis and asthma [18, 19]. All these trials have used different doses and durations and different strains of probiotics (eg, bifidobacterium longum; lactobacillus strains). In all the trials, the minimum dose of probiotics administered was > 5 billion colony forming unit (CFU) and minimum duration of administration was 1 month. It has been hypothesized that some probiotic strains and/or their fermentation products are responsible for improvement of allergic rhinitis and the immunostimulatory effect of Lactobacillus may be dose dependant [11, 15, 20, 21].
The effects of probiotics to modulate blood/immunologic parameters associated with allergic symptoms should be elucidated as some studies found beneficial effect on clinical parameters without significant change in the immunologic parameters. In this review, we found no significant overall change in immunologic parameters in the probiotics group. In all the trials, subjects were advised to continue antiallergic medications during symptomatic period. In contrast to other treatments such as histamine release inhibitors or antihistamines, the effects of probiotics are expected to be mild, with a lag period in the expression of their effect. Uses of medications vary from patient to patient and some has carried over effects (eg, steroids). Caution should be exercised during interpretation of results because of probiotic bacteria effects per se.
Characteristics of Excluded Studies
Reason for Exclusion
Group 1 and 2 randomized and double-blinded, but group 3 were those did not want to eat yogurt
Patients had birch pollen allergy and mainly rhino-conjunctivitis
Investigates symptoms induced by Japanese cedar pollen in an environmental exposure unit
Randomized single-blind study with quality score = 0
We wish to thank the South-Asian Cochrane network for technical assistance.
- Allergic rhinitis and its impact on Asthma: ARIA workshop report. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001, 108 (Suppl): S147-S276.Google Scholar
- Reid G, Sanders ME, Gaskins HR, Gibson GR, Mercenier A, et al: New scientific paradigms for probiotics and prebiotics. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2003, 37: 105-118. 10.1097/00004836-200308000-00004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Allen SJ, Okoko B, Martinez E, et al: Probiotics for treating infectious diarrhoea. Cochrane Database of Systematic Rev. 2007, 1: CD003048-Google Scholar
- D'souza AL, Rajkumar C, Cooke J, Bulpitt CJ: Probiotics in preventing of antibiotic associated diarrhoea: Meta-analysis. BMJ. 2002, 324: 1361-1364. 10.1136/bmj.324.7350.1361.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Othman M, Meilson JP, Alfirevic Z: Probiotics for preventing preterm labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2007, 1: CD005941-Google Scholar
- Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carroll D, et al: Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary?. Controlled Clin Trials. 1996, 17: 1-12. 10.1016/0197-2456(95)00134-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peng G-C, Hsu C-H: The Efficacy and safety of heat-killed Lactobacillus paracasei for treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis induced by house-dust mite. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2005, 16: 433-438. 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2005.00284.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang MF, Lin HC, Wang YY, Hsu CH: Treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis with lactic acid bacteria. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2004, 15: 152-158. 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2004.00156.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Giovannini M, Agostoni C, Riva E, Salvini F, Ruscitto A, et al: A randomized prospective double blind controlled trial on effects of long-term consumption of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei in pre-school children with allergic asthma and/or rhinitis. Pediatr Res. 2007, 62: 215-220. 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3180a76d94.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tamura M, Shikina T, Morihana T, Hayama M, Kajimoto O, et al: Effects of probiotics on allergic rhinitis induced by Japanese cedar pollen: randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2007, 143: 75-82. 10.1159/000098318.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xiao JZ, Kondo S, Yanagisawa N, et al: Effect of probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BB536 in relieving clinical symptoms and modulating plasma cytokine levels of Japanese cedar pollinosis during the pollen season. A randomized double-blind, placebo controlled trial. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2006, 16: 86-93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xiao JZ, Kondo S, Yanagisawa N, et al: Probiotics in the treatment of Japanese cedar pollinosis: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Clin Exp Allergy. 2006, 36: 1425-1435. 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2006.02575.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ishida Y, Nakamura F, Kanzato H, Sawada D, Hirata H, et al: Clinical effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain L-92 on perennial allergic rhinitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Dairy Sci. 2005, 85: 527-533. 10.1051/lait:2005035.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C: Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ. 1997, 315: 629-634. 10.1136/bmj.315.7109.629.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Hatakka K, Savilahti E, et al: Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial. BMJ. 2001, 322: 1327-1329. 10.1136/bmj.322.7298.1327. ,View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Miettinen M, Matikainen S, Vuopio-Varkila J, et al: Lactobacilli and streptococci induce interleukin- 12 (IL-12), IL-18, and gamma interferon production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Infectious Immunol. 1998, 66: 6058-6062.Google Scholar
- Drug Information Association (DIA): The First International DIA Workshop: "Developing Probiotics as Foods and Drugs-Scientific and Regulatory Challenges.". 2006, Adelphi, MD, Available at: http://www.isapp.net/IS_news.htm.Google Scholar
- Marin ML, Tejada-Simon MV, Lee JH, Murtha J, Ustunol Z, Pestka JJ: Stimulation of cytokine production in clonal macrophage and T-cell models by Streptococcus thermophilus: comparison with Bifidobacterium sp. and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. J Food Prot. 1998, 61: 859-864.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aldinucci C, Bellussi L, Monciatti G, Passàli GC, Salerni L, Passàli D, Bocci V: Effects of dietary yoghurt on immunological and clinical parameters of rhinopathic patients. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002, 56: 1155-1161. 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601465.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Trapp CL, Chang CC, Halpern GM, et al: The influence of chronic yogurt consumption on populations of young and elderly adults. International Journal of Immunotherapy. 1993, IX: 53-64.Google Scholar
- Helin T, Haahtela S, Haahtela T: No effect of oral treatment with an intestinal bacterial strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 53103), on birch-pollen allergy: a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Allergy. 2002, 57: 243-246. 10.1034/j.1398-9995.2002.1s3299.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xiao JZ, Kondo S, Yanagisawa N, et al: Clinical efficacy of probiotic Bifidobacterium longum for the treatment of symptoms of Japanese cedar pollen allergy in subjects evaluated in an environmental exposure unit. Allergol Intl. 2007, 56: 67-75. 10.2332/allergolint.O-06-455.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ishida Y, Nakamura F, Kanzato H, Sawada D, Yamamoto N, et al: Effect of milk fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain L-92 on Symptoms of Japanese Cedar Pollen Allergy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005, 69: 1652-1660. 10.1271/bbb.69.1652.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.