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Table 1 Evidence Profile

From: Probiotics as treatment for food allergies among pediatric patients: a meta-analysis

Certainty assessment№ of patientsEffectCertaintyImportance
No. of studiesStudy designRisk of biasInconsistencyIndirectnessImprecisionOther considerationsProbioticsPlaceboRelative (95% CI)Absolute(95% CI)  
SCORAD Index (assessed with: mean difference)
 2randomized trialsnot seriousnot seriousnot seriousserious anone209205MD 1.3 lower (3.88 lower to 1.28 higher)
MODERATE
CRITICAL
No tolerance (assessed with: relative risk)
 4randomized trialsserious bnot seriousnot seriousserious anone40/153 (26.1%)73/161 (45.3%)RR 0.70 (0.39 to 1.26)136 fewer per 1000 (from 118 more to 277 fewer)
LOW
CRITICAL
  1. CI Confidence interval, RR Risk ratio, MD Mean difference
  2. aSerious imprecision due to wide confidence intervals straddling the no-effect line
  3. bHigh risk of attrition bias in 3 out of 4 studies