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Table 7 Strength of association of environmental risk factors with AR manifestation

From: Epidemiology of allergic rhinitis and associated risk factors in Asia

Study Study population, N OR/PRa Values (95% CI) p-value References
Fungi
 Norbäck et al., 2016 (1) [41] 462 OR 0.76 (0.58 - 0.99) < 0.05 With fungi in ref. to without: OR adjusted for gender, ethnicity, smoking, atopy and heredity
 Norbäck et al., 2016 (2) [35] 462 OR 3.44 (1.81 - 6.59) < 0.001 With fungal endotoxin C14 3-OH FA in ref. to without: OR adjusted for classroom level
Mold
 Kidoni et al., 2004 [19] 202 OR 9.40 (3.80 - 22.90) With mold sensitization vs without
Insect
 Ng & Tan, 1994 [36] 2868 OR 2.08 (1.29 – 3.35) < 0.005 Once every day in ref. to once every few months
: OR adjusted for age, flat size, housing estate, race, race, occupational exposure, and fume
House dust mite
 Lim et al., 2015 [11] 695 OR 1.66 (1.08 - 2.56) < 0.05 With house dust mite allergy in ref. to without
: OR adjusted for gender, current smoking status, age, cat allergy, home dampness, and indoor home painting in last 12 months
 Norbäck et al., 2016 (2) [35] 462 OR 2.91 (1.35 - 6.24) < 0.01 Continuous variable, 1000 mg increase in fine dust
: OR adjusted for classroom level
Carpet
 Hsu et al., 2009 [35] 1368 OR 1.60 (1.09 - 2.35) < 0.025 With carpets in ref. to without
: OR adjusted for birth weight, gender, gestational age, maternal education, gestational complications, smoking, pets, parity, molds, and air pollutions
Home renovation
 Li et al., 2014 [7] 9899 OR 1.39 (1.06 - 1.81) < 0.05 With home renovation in ref. to without
Air pollution
 Hsu et al., 2009 [10] 1368 OR 1.44 (1.10 - 1.88) < 0.01 With air pollution in ref. to without
: OR adjusted for birth weight, gender, gestational age, maternal education, gestational complications, smoking, pets, carpets, molds, and parity
Fume exposure
 Ng & Tan, 1994 [36] 2868 OR 2.29 (1.32 - 3.99) < 0.005 Often in ref. to rarely: OR adjusted for age, flat size, housing estate, race, race, occupational exposure, and race
Traffic
 Zuraimi et al., 2011 [21] 2994 PR 1.58 (1.04 - 2.39) < 0.05 Heavy traffic in ref. to low traffic for all children
: PR adjusted for gender, age, race, socioeconomic status, housing type, parental atopy, breastfeeding, food allergy, and resident height
   1.73 (1.00 - 2.99) < 0.05 Heavy traffic in ref. to low traffic for all lifetime residents
: PR adjusted for gender, age, race, socioeconomic status, housing type, parental atopy, breastfeeding, food allergy, and resident height
Occupational exposure
 An et al., 2015 [2] 31,217 OR 1.28 (1.11 - 1.47) < 0.01 Unemployed in ref. to engineer
: OR adjusted for age, gender, family size, residency, educational, household income, and marriage
   1.29 (1.09 - 1.52) < 0.01 Manager, expert, specialist & clerks in ref. to engineer
: OR adjusted for age, gender, family size, residency, educational, household income, and marriage
   1.18 (1.01 - 1.39) < 0.01 Service worker & seller in ref. to engineer
: OR adjusted for age, gender, family size residency, educational, household income, and marriage
   1.32 (1.11 - 1.58) < 0.01 Technician, mechanics & production worker in ref. to engineer
: OR adjusted for age, gender, family size, residency, educational, household income, and marriage
 Ng & Tan 1994 [36] 2868 OR 1.95 (1.36 - 2.80) < 0.0005 Wth occupational exposure vs without: OR adjusted for age, flat size, housing estate, race, race, fume, and race
  1. aOR odds ratio, PR prevalence ratio