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Table 6 Strength of association of family factor with AR manifestation

From: Epidemiology of allergic rhinitis and associated risk factors in Asia

Study Study population, N OR/PRa Values (95% CI) p-value References
Age of gestation
 Lee et al., 2017 [42] 1497 OR 0.51 < 0.05 Preterm in ref. to term
 Li et al., 2015 [22] 20,803 OR 1.07 (0.88 - 1.30) < 0.001 Preterm in ref. to term
   1.42 (1.20 - 1.69) < 0.001 Post-term in ref. to term
Mother depression
 Li et al., 2015 [22] 20,803 OR 1.16 (1.05 - 1.29) < 0.05 Mother with pre- or postnatal depression in ref. to without
Mode of delivery
 Li et al., 2015 [22] 20,803 OR 1.36 (1.23 - 1.49) < 0.001 Cesarean in ref. to vaginal delivery
Breastfeeding
 Huang et al., 2017 [34] 13,335 OR 0.97 (0.94 - 0.99) < 0.05 With exclusive for > 6 months breastfeeding in ref. to never breastfeeding
: OR adjusted for family atopy, gender, age, district of the current residence, home ownership, early pet-keeping, parental smoking, and home dampness
 Li et al., 2015 [22] 20,803 OR 0.67 (0.61 – 0.73) < 0.001 With exclusive breastfeeding in the first 4 months in ref. to without
Maternal education
Li et al., 2015 [22] 20,803 OR 1.55 (1.36 - 1.77) < 0.001 High school in ref. to middle school or below
   2.11 (1.86 - 2.39) < 0.001 College or above in ref. to middle school or below
Paternal education
 Li et al., 2015 [22] 20,803 OR 1.52 (1.32 - 1.74) < 0.001 High school in ref. to middle school or below
   2.02 (1.77 - 2.30) < 0.001 College or above in ref. to middle school or below
Gruel introduction
 Huang et al., 2017 [34] 13,335 OR 0.95 (0.90 - 1.00) < 0.05 For > 6 months-old in ref. to < 3 months-old
: OR adjusted for family atopy, gender, age, district of the current residence, home ownership, early pet-keeping, parental smoking, and home dampness
Family history of atopy
 Bunnag et al., 2000 [37] 3124 OR 1.96 (1.56 - 2.46) < 0.05 With family history of atopy in ref. to without: adjusted OR
Family history of allergic diseases
 Alsowaidi et al., 2010 [3] 7550 OR 6.08 (4.93 - 7.50) < 0.0005 With family history of AR in ref. to without
: OR adjusted for nationality, gender, age, and education
 Li et al., 2014 [7] 9899 OR 3.51 (2.65 - 4.64) < 0.001 With family history of AR in ref. to without
 Graif et al., 2004 [38] 10,057 OR 1.30 (1.02 - 1.66) With family history of asthma in ref. to without: OR adjusted for current asthma, gender, gender, gender, and smoking
 Norbäck et al., 2016 (2) [35] 462 OR 3.49 (1.97 - 6.20) < 0.001 With family history of allergic reactions in ref. to without: OR adjusted for gender, smoking, atopy, and race
 Ziyab, 2017 [8] 1154 PR 1.82 (1.39 - 2.39) < 0.001 With maternal allergy in ref. to without: PR adjusted for gender, cat exposure, and age
   1.87 (1.25 - 2.77) < 0.005 With paternal allergy in ref. to without: PR adjusted for gender, cat exposure, and age
  1. aOR odds ratio, PR prevalence ratio