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Table 5 Strength of association of personal risk factor with AR manifestation

From: Epidemiology of allergic rhinitis and associated risk factors in Asia

Study Study population, N ORa Values (95% CI) p-value References
Alcohol
 Bunnag et al., 2000 [37] 3124 OR 1.46 (1.15 - 1.86) < 0.05 Drinker in ref. to non-drinker: adjusted OR
Smoking
 Bunnag et al., 2000 [37] 3124 OR 1.39 (1.05 - 1.83) < 0.05 Smoker in ref. to non-smoker: adjusted OR
 Li et al., 2014 [7] 9899 OR 1.44 (1.10 - 1.88) < 0.01 Smoker in ref. to non-smoker
 Ng & Tan, 1994 [36] 2868 OR 1.75 (1.01 – 3.04) < 0.05 Past smoker in ref. to non- smoker: OR adjusted for age, flat size, housing estate, race, insect exposure, occupational exposure, and fume
 Zuraimi et al., 2008 [39] 6794 OR 1.23 (1.01 - 1.50) Passive smoker in ref. to non-passive smoker: OR adjusted for age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, housing type, family atopy, breastfeeding, food allergy, respiratory infections, home dampness, air conditioning, home wall paper, carpet, home traffic density, childcare centre ventilation and dampness
Computer usage
 Li et al., 2014 [7] 9899 OR 1.45 (1.10 - 1.91) < 0.01 Occasionally in ref. to never
   1.46 (1.10 - 1.93) < 0.01 < 2 h daily in ref. to never
   1.58 (1.14 - 2.19) < 0.01 2-4 h daily in ref. to never
Education
 Alsowaidi et al., 2010 [3] 7550 OR 1.42 (1.05 - 1.93) < 0.05 University in ref. to illiterate and primary school: OR adjusted for nationality, gender, family history of AR, and age
 Min et al., 1997 [20] 10,054 OR 1.83 (0.82 - 4.02) < 0.05 Elementary in ref. to illiterate: OR adjusted for age
   2.11 (0.93 - 4.79) < 0.05 Junior in ref. to illiterate: OR adjusted for age
   2.81 (1.34 - 5.86) < 0.05 Senior in ref. to illiterate: OR adjusted for age
   2.54 (1.08 - 5.96) < 0.05 College in ref. to illiterate: OR adjusted for age
Stress
 An et al., 2015 [2] 31,217 OR 1.14 (1.01 - 1.28) < 0.001 A little in ref. to little: OR adjusted for age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, smoking status, sleep time and drinking
   1.46 (1.28 - 1.66) < 0.001 Moderate in ref. to little
: OR adjusted for age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, smoking status, sleep time and drinking
   1.47 (1.21 - 1.79) < 0.001 Severe in ref. to little
     : OR adjusted for age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, smoking status, sleep time and drinking
Sleep time
 An et al., 2015 [2] 31,217 OR 0.92 (0.84 - 1.00) < 0.05 > 7 h in ref. to ≤7 h
: OR adjusted for age, gender, height, weight, body mass index, smoking status, stress and drinking
Parasitic infection
 Phathammavong et al., 2008 [9] 536 OR 3.41 (1.03 - 11.29) < 0.05 With parasitic infection in ref. to without
: OR adjusted for gender, age, parity, parents education, pets ownership, sharing bed, air conditioning, measles infection, respiratory infection, time on road, meat, fish, vegetables, cow milk, fast food and eggs consumptions, and family income
Past respiratory infection
 Phathammavong et al., 2008 [9] 536 OR 4.06 (1.83 - 9.01) < 0.05 With past respiratory infection in ref. to without
: OR adjusted for gender, age, parity, parents education, pets ownership, sharing bed, air conditioning, measles infection, family income, time on road, meat, fish, vegetables, cow milk, fast food and eggs consumptions, and intestinal parasitic infestation
  1. aOR odds ratio