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Table 4 Strength of association of demographic factors with AR manifestation

From: Epidemiology of allergic rhinitis and associated risk factors in Asia

Study Study population, N OR/PRa Values (95% CI) p-value References
Age
 Alsowaidiet al., 2010 [3] 7550 OR 0.66 (0.54 - 0.81) < 0.0005 > 19 years in ref. to 13-19 years: OR adjusted for nationality, gender, family history of AR, and education
 Li et al., 2015 [22] 20,803 OR 1.05 (1.02-1.07) < 0.05 Continuous variable, 1 year increase (elementary school student)
 Lim et al., 2015 [11] 695 OR 0.72 (0.58 - 0.88) < 0.01 Continuous variable, 10 year increase (18 - 60 years): OR adjusted for gender, smoking, house dust mite allergy, cat allergy, home dampness, and home renovation
 Ng & Tan, 1994 [36] 2868 OR 0.19 (0.10 – 0.35) < 0.0001 60-74 years in ref. to 20-39 years: OR adjusted for race, flat size, housing estate, smoking, insect exposure, occupational exposure, and fume
 Ziyab, 2017 [8] 1154 PR 1.04 (1.01 - 1.07) < 0.01 Continuous variable (18-26 years): PR adjusted for gender, cat exposure, maternal AR, and paternal AR
Gender
 Alsowaidi et al., 2010 [3] 7550 OR 0.75 (0.63 - 0.88) < 0.005 Male in ref. to female: OR adjusted for nationality, age, family history of AR, and education
 Graif et al., 2004 [38] 10,057 OR 0.85 (0.74 – 0.97) Male in ref. to female: OR adjusted for current asthma, family history of asthma, race, residency, and smoking
 Hsu et al., 2009 [10] 1368 OR 0.58 (0.47 – 0.72) < 0.001 Male in ref. to female: OR adjusted for birth weight, parity, gestational age, maternal education, gestational complications, smoking, pets, carpets, molds, and air pollutions
 Lee et al., 2017 [42] 1497 OR 1.57 < 0.01 Male in ref. to female
 Lei, Yang & Zhen, 2016 [40] 3327 OR 0.68 (0.46 - 1.00) < 0.05 Male in ref. to female
 Li et al., 2015 [22] 20,803 OR 1.55 (1.41 - 1.70) < 0.001 Male in ref. to female
Race
 Graif et al., 2004 [38] 10,057 OR 1.75 (1.45 - 2.13) Jews in ref. to Arabs: OR adjusted for current asthma, family history of asthma, gender, residency, and smoking
 Ng & Tan, 1994 [36] 2, 868 OR 2.02 (1.29 - 3.14) < 0.005 Indian in ref. to Malay: OR adjusted for age, flat size, housing estate, smoking, insect exposure, occupational exposure, and fume
 Norbäck et al., 2016 (2) [35] 462 OR 0.33 (0.13 - 0.88) < 0.05 Indian in ref. to Malay: OR adjusted for gender, smoking, atopy, and family history of allergic diseases
Nationality
 Alsowaidi et al., 2010 [3] 7550 OR 0.48 (0.34 - 0.68) < 0.005 Others in ref. to Arabs: OR adjusted for age, gender, family history of AR, and education
Residency
 Graif et al., 2004 [38] 10,057 OR 0.84 (0.90 - 1.40) Urban in ref. to rural: OR adjusted for current asthma, family history of asthma, gender, gender, and smoking
 Lee et al., 2017 [42] 1497 OR 0.71 < 0.05 Townhouse in ref. to others
 Li et al., 2014 [7] 9899 OR 1.91 (1.37 - 2.68) < 0.001 Urban in ref. to rural
 Min et al., 1997 [20] 10,054 OR 5.26 (2.27 - 12.50) < 0.05 Urban in ref. to rural: OR adjusted for age
Housing estate
 Li et al., 2015 [22] 20,803 OR 2.19 (1.97 - 2.43) < 0.001 Cities SH, GZ, WH, CD in ref. to XA, HA, HO, UR
 Ng & Tan, 1994 [36] 2868 OR 1.92 (1.07 - 3.46) < 0.05 Toa Payoh in ref. to Yishun
: OR adjusted for age, flat size, race, smoking, insect exposure, occupational exposure, and fume
Household income
 Bunnag et al., 2000 [37] 3124 OR 1.97 (1.23 - 3.16) < 0.05 High income in ref. to medium income: adjusted OR
 Li et al., 2015 [22] 20,803 OR 1.42 (1.21 - 1.68) < 0.001 800-1500 RMB/month in ref. to 800 RMB/month
   1.93 (1.64 - 2.27) < 0.001 1500-2500 RMB/month in ref. to 800 RMB/month
   2.88 (2.47 - 3.37) < 0.001 > 2500 RMB/month in ref. to 800RMB/month
Phathammavong et al., 2008 [9] 536 OR 2.23 (1.04 - 4.81) < 0.05 High income in ref. to low income: OR adjusted for gender, age, parity, parents education, pets ownership, sharing bed, air conditioning, measles infection, respiratory infection, time on road, meat, fish, vegetables, cow milk, fast food and eggs consumptions, and intestinal parasitic infestation
Parity
 Hsu et al., 2009 [10] 1368 OR 1.42 (1.02 - 1.97) < 0.025 N = 1 in ref. to N ≥ 3
: OR adjusted for birth weight, gender, gestational age, maternal education, gestational complications, smoking, pets, carpets, molds, and air pollutions
   1.43 (1.01 - 2.01) < 0.025 N = 2 in ref. to N ≥ 3: OR adjusted for birth weight, gender, gestational age, maternal education, gestational complications, smoking, pets, carpets, molds, and air pollutions
Family size
 Li et al., 2015 [22] 20,803 OR 1.26 (1.05 - 1.51) < 0.005 N < 3 in ref. to N ≥ 4
   1.18 (1.0 - 1.30) < 0.005 N = 3 in ref. to N ≥ 4
Marital status
 An et al., 2015 [2] 31,217 OR 0.85 (0.74 - 0.97) < 0.05 Married in ref. to unmarried: OR adjusted for age, gender, family size, residency, educational, Household income, and occupation
  1. aOR odds ratio, PR prevalence ratio