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Table 1 Summaries of allergic rhinitis-specific articles published in year 1994-2017 in Asia

From: Epidemiology of allergic rhinitis and associated risk factors in Asia

Country, location No. of sample Study design Prevalence Definition of the disease stage Parameters analyzed Reference, date
Singapore 2868 adults aged 20-74 years Cross-sectional population-based study 4.5% Allergic rhinitis: self-reported presence, in the previous year, of usual nasal blockage and discharge apart from colds or the flu, provoked by allergens, with or without conjunctivitis. Significant parameters
➢ Age
➢ Fume exposure
➢ Housing estate
➢ Insect
➢ Occupational exposure
➢ Race
➢ Smoking
Insignificant parameters
➢ Air pollution
➢ Carpet
➢ Gender
➢ Pet
Ng & Tan, 1994 [36]
Korea 10,054 residents Cross-sectional interview based study with Physical examination 1.14% Perennial allergic rhinitis in this study was defined as the presence of typical nasal symptoms including watery rhinorrhea, sneezing, itching and nasal obstruction during a period greater than 12 months, positive history of known allergen or triggering factors, and the physical finding of pale nasal mucosa on endoscopic examination. Significant parameters
➢ Educational attainment
➢ Residency
Insignificant parameters
➢ Marital status
➢ Occupational exposure
➢ Smoking
➢ Social class
Min et al., 1997 [20]
Thailand, Bangkok 3124 residents Cross-sectional questionnaire based study 13.15% (95% CI = 13.13-13.17) with Chronic rhinitis (CR) Rhinitis is defined as inflammation of the lining of the nose, characterized by one or more of the following symptoms, i.e. itching, sneezing, rhinorrhea and nasal obstruction (International Rhinitis Management Working Group, 1994). CR is diagnosed when one frequently has rhinitis symptoms without fever for a period of more than one year. Significant parameters
➢ Associated allergic diseases
➢ Drinking
➢ Family history of atopy
➢ Household income
➢ Smoking
Insignificant parameter
➢ Gender
Bunnag et al., 2000 [37]
Israel 10,057 schoolchildren, aged 13-14 years Cross-sectional questionnaire based study 41.6% with Ever AR,
9.4% with Current AR
Ever AR: Children who reported having rhinitis and sneezing without flu ever
Current AR: Answer ‘Yes’ to the question, “Do you have allergic rhinitis?”
Significant parameters
➢ Asthma
➢ Family history of allergic diseases
➢ Gender
➢ Race
➢ Residency
Graif et al., 2004 [38]
Singapore 202 patients aged 2-14 years Retrospective analysis with medical records from allergic rhinitis patients undergo SPT test in KK Children’s hospital (Jul 2001 to June 2002) 33% (AR + asthma), 13% (AR + AD) & 7% (AR + asthma + AD)
− 44% hospitalization rate
Confirmation from a specialist in Pediatric Otolaryngology Significant parameter
➢ Mold
Kidoni et al., 2004 [19].
Laos, Vientiane 536 (included students aged 6-7 years and 13-14 years) Cross-sectional questionnaire based study from Dec 2006 to Feb 2007 with stool examination 21.0% (6-7 years) & 22.3% (13-14 years) Had a problem with sneezing, runny, or blocked nose when did not have cold or the flu in the past 12 months (ISAAC definition) Significant parameters
➢ Household income
➢ Parasitic infection
➢ Past respiratory infection
Insignificant parameters
➢ Age
➢ Air conditioning
➢ Birth order
➢ Family history of allergic diseases
➢ Food
➢ Gender
➢ Parity
➢ Past measles infection
➢ Pet
➢ Sharing bed
➢ Smoking
➢ Time on road
Phathammavong et al., 2008 [9]
Singapore 6794 children attending 120 randomly selected child care centres Cross-sectional questionnaire based study 25.6 (Rhinitis) N.A. Significant parameter
➢ Smoking
Zuraimi et al., 2008 [39]
Taiwan, Taipei 1368 elementary school children Cross-sectional questionnaire based study with multi-stage clustered-stratified random method, physical examination 50.1% The presence of typical nasal symptoms including watery rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal obstruction of more than 12 months’ duration, positive history of known allergen or triggering factors, and pale nasal mucosa. Significant parameters
➢ Air pollution
➢ Carpet
➢ Gender
➢ Parity
Insignificant parameters
➢ Age of gestation
➢ Gestational complication
➢ Maternal education
➢ Mold
➢ Pet
➢ Smoking
Hsu et al., 2009 [10]
United Arab Emirates, Al-Ain City 7550 residents ≥13 years Cross-sectional questionnaire based study 32% The definition of AR used in this study was having had AR symptoms of (nasal blockage, rhinorrhoea, sneezing and irritation), in the past 12 months. Significant parameters
➢ Age
➢ Education attainment
➢ Family history of allergic diseases
➢ Gender
➢ Nationality
Alsowaidi et al., 2010 [3]
Singapore 2994 children living in homes without any indoor risk factors Cross-sectional questionnaire based study 24% (Rhinitis) N.A. Significant parameter
➢ Traffic
Insignificant parameter
➢ Air conditioning
Zuraimi et al., 2011 [21]
China, Guangzhou City 9899 citizens Cross-sectional questionnaire based study with stratified multistage cluster sampling method 6.24% According to the diagnostic criteria of AR in the ARIA 2001 Guideline, the ENT specialists verified the screening questionnaires and made the diagnosis based on the typical AR symptoms within the last 12 months.
Intermittent AR was determined when the symptoms occur, 4 days/week or, 4 consecutive weeks/year; while persistent AR was determined when symptoms last 4 days/week or 4 consecutive weeks/year.
Significant parameters
➢ Computer usage
➢ Family history of allergic diseases
➢ Home renovation
➢ Pet
➢ Residency
➢ Smoking
Insignificant parameters
➢ Age
➢ Breastfeeding
➢ Car ownership
➢ Hair coloring
➢ Household income
Li et al., 2014 [7]
Korea 31,217 subjects aged 6-97 years Cross-sectional study, data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 27% N.A. Significant parameters
➢ Marital status
➢ Occupational exposure
➢ Sleep time
➢ Stress level
Insignificant parameters
➢ BMI
➢ Drinking
➢ Education attainment
➢ Family size
➢ Household income
➢ Residency
➢ Smoking
An et al., 2015 [2]
China 20,803 elementary school students Cross-sectional questionnaire based study 9.8% AR: yes for “Has your child had allergic rhinitis in the past 12 months?” Significant parameters
➢ Age
➢ Age of gestation
➢ Breastfeeding
➢ Family size
➢ Gender
➢ Household income
➢ Housing estate
➢ Maternal education
➢ Mode of delivery
➢ Maternal pre- or postnatal depression
➢ Paternal education
Insignificant parameters
➢ Drinking
➢ Smoking
Li et al., 2015 [22]
Malaysia 695 Malaysia office works aged 18-60 years Cross-sectional questionnaire based study, SPT test, building inspection 53% with current rhinitis Doctor diagnosis Significant parameters
➢ Age
➢ House dust mite
Insignificant parameters
➢ Gender
➢ Pet
➢ Smoking
Lim et al., 2015 [11]
China, Wuhan 3327 Cross-sectional questionnaire based study, physical examination 17.67% Doctor diagnosis Significant parameter
➢ Gender
Insignificant parameter
➢ BMI
Lei, Yang & Zhen, 2016 [40]
Malaysia, Johor Bahru 462 students from 8 random schools Cross-sectional questionnaire based study, building inspections 18.8% for students from junior high schools N.A. Significant parameter
➢ Fungi
Norbäck et al., 2016 (1) [41]
Malaysia, Johor Bahru 462 students from 8 random schools Cross-sectional questionnaire based study, building inspections 18.8% for students from junior high schools N.A. Significant parameters
➢ Atopy
➢ Family history of allergic disease
➢ Fungi
➢ House dust mite
➢ Race
Insignificant parameters
➢ Gender
➢ Smoking
Norbäck et al., 2016 (2) [35]
China, Shanghai 13,335 children, aged 4-6 years Cross-sectional questionnaire based study 12.6% Answer yes for “Has your child ever had a problem with sneezing, or a runny, or blocked nose when he/she did not have a cold or the flu in the past years” Significant parameters
➢ Breastfeeding
➢ Gruel introduction
Huang et al., 2017 [34]
Taiwan 1497 newborns Birth cohort follow-up, questionnaire survey, physician-verified and serological testing Non-atopic parents & one atopic parent & atopic parents
: 30.8% vs 39.9% vs 54.7%
Doctor diagnosis Significant parameters
➢ Age of gestation
➢ Gender
➢ Residency
Lee et al., 2017 [42]
Kuwait 1154 students, aged 18-26 years attending Kuwait University Cross-sectional questionnaire based study 20.4% (95% Cl- 18.1-22.9) Current rhinitis: “ever doctor-diagnosed rhinitis” plus “having problems with sneezing, runny, or blocked nose in the absence of cold or flu in the last 12 months” Significant parameters
➢ Age
➢ Family history of allergic diseases
➢ Pet
Insignificant parameters
➢ Birth order
➢ Gender
➢ Mode of delivery
➢ Smoking
Ziyab, 2017 [8]