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Table 2 Excerpt of studies on asthma epidemiology (ref 5, 6, 8), asthma symptoms (female sex hormones: ref. 33, 38, 40, 45; gender specific: ref. 52, 53) and asthma therapy (ref 61, 62)

From: Gender aspects and influence of hormones on bronchial asthma – Secondary publication and update

Trial design Results Reference
5128 subjects
Cohort study
Asthma incidence higher in women than men; female predominance stronger in non-sensitized adults [5]
1226 asthmatic patients
Cross-sectional survey
Younger women have lower quality of life and less asthma control than men [6]
8607 subjects
Cohort study
Obesity and asthma are correlated in 6–7 year old children but not in 13–14 year old teenagers [8]
571 women
Population-based cohort study
Variation of bronchial hyperreactivity during menstruation due to hormonal influences [33]
2322 women
Population-based cohort study
The odds of new onset asthma are increased in early postmenopausal women [38]
2206 women
Population-based cohort study
Hormone replacement therapy and overweight increase the risk of asthma [40]
1438 women
Population-based cohort study
Lung function decline is more rapid among post-menopausal women; respiratory health often deteriorates during reproductive aging [45]
1248 children
Population-based study;
Secondary analysis
Girls with asthma have higher physical tobacco dependence scores compared to girls without asthma [52]
3700 non-asthmatics
746 asthmatics
Observational cohort study
Asthma is associated with increased risk of new onset chronic migraine; higher risk with higher number of respiratory symptoms [53]
122 asthmatics
Population-based study
No effect of inhaled corticosteroids on the decline of lung function in women compared to men [61]
194 asthmatics
Randomized, controlled trial
Montelukast decreased the risk of worsened asthma with greater benefit in young boys and older girls [62]