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Table 2 Risk factors associated with papular urticaria in children (1–6 years of age)

From: Prevalence of papular urticaria caused by flea bites and associated factors in children 1–6 years of age in Bogotá, D.C.

Factors Prevalence CI 95% for Prevalence Relative standard error (%) p value OR CI 95% OR
Socioeconomic stratum
 1 to 3 21.1 18.9–23.6 5.7 0.004 1.75 1.20–2.56
 4 to 6 13.3 9.7–17.9 15.3 1.00
Soil/earth floor in the living room
 Yes 70.5 24.3–94.7 29.8 0.009 9.35 1.23–71.43
 No 20.3 18.1–22.7 5.6 1.00  
Soil/earth floor in the main bedroom a
 Yes 70.1 28.5–93.2 26.6 0.003 9.35 1.55–92.59
 No 20.1 18.0–22.4 5.4 1.00  
Mattress material: Without springs b
 Yes 24.1 20.0–28.8 9.2 0.025 1.48 1.05–2.10
 No 17.6 14.9–20.7 8.2 1.00  
Members of the family usually bitten by fleas
 Yes 23.0 19.6–26.7 7.8 0.030 1.34 1.02–1.74
 No 18.2 15.8–20.9 7,0 1.00  
Presence of fleas in households
 Yes 26.9 23.6–30.4 6.4 < 0.001 1.84 1.42–2.38
 No 16.6 14.1–19.5 8.1 1.00  
Siblings with atopic dermatitis
 Yes 27.2 21.1–34.3 12.2 0.019 1.51 1.07–2.13
 No 19.9 17.7–22.2 5.6 1.00  
  1. aSoil Floor (earth floor)
  2. bWithout springs (foam, speck [mattresses made with leftover pieces of material such as cloth, wool, specks, etc.)