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Table 1 Differential diagnosis of anaphylaxis

From: International Consensus (ICON): allergic reactions to vaccines

Anaphylaxis due to other allergenic or external exposures:  
 Food (including scombroidosis), medication, insect venom, exercise, heat, cold, idiopathic.  
Anaphylaxis due to excess histamine production:  
 Systemic mastocytosis, mast cell activation syndromes.  
Flushing syndromes  
 Red man syndrome (vancomycin or other medication), carcinoid, postmenopausal, alcohol-related, vasoactive-peptide tumors (e.g. pancreatic VIPoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma).  
 Vasovagal episodes, panic attacks, vocal cord dysfunction, C1 inhibitor deficiency syndromes (hereditary and acquired), pheochromocytoma, neurologic process (seizure/stroke), cardiovascular process (myocardial infarction, embolism), capillary leak syndrome, dehydration, hypoglycemia.