Skip to main content

Table 4 The types of allergic mechanisms as described by Gell and Coombs [10], revision as proposed by Uzzaman and Cho [11]

From: Debates in allergy medicine: food intolerance does not exist

No Type Mechanism Disease
I Immediate type allergy IgE Anaphylaxis Atopic asthma, rhino-conjunctivitis immediate type urticaria etc.
II a Cytotoxic or IgG/IgM mediated IgG/IgM Auto-immune diseases
II b Antibody-mediated cell stimulating Antibodies cell stimulation Diffuse goitre Basedow’s/Grave’s disease “Autoimmune” chronic idiopathic urticaria
III Immune complex mediated - IgG/IgM - complement Lupus erythematosus Epidermolysis bullosa
IV a Macrophage activation CD4(+)Th1 lymphocyte mediated with activation of macrophages Granulomatous diseases Type I diabetes mellitus
IV b CD4(+)Th2 eosinophilic reaction CD4(+)Th2 lymphocytes and eosinophils Chronic asthma and chronic rhinitis
IV c Cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocyte incused apoptosis Cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes Perforin-granzme B apoptosis Stevens-Johnson syndrome Toxic epidermal necrolysis
IV d T-lymphocyte-driven neutrophilic inflammation T-lymphocytes Neutrophilic inflammation Pustular psoriasis Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis