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Table 3 Origin of desert dust storms and composition of minerals (in the nine potential dust source regions in the world)

From: Meteorological conditions, climate change, new emerging factors, and asthma and related allergic disorders. A statement of the World Allergy Organization

Dust source regions Origin of dust storm Composition of minerals
Australian dust New South Wales and north-east South Australia Aluminum, iron, manganese [106].
North Africa (Sahara) dust Bodélé Depression and area covering eastern Mauritania, western Mali and southern Algeria. Clay minerals, quartz, calcium, magnesium, carbonate [105].
Asian dust (Central Asia) Taklamakan Desert in XinJiang Province of China and the Gobi Desert located in Inner Mongolia Aluminosilicate, cadmium, calcium, manganese, nickel, arsenic, silicon dioxide, calcium carbonate, and organic compounds coated by nitrate [131].
Arabian Peninsula Sudan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and the Arabian Gulf Mixture of silicate minerals, clays, quartz, carbonates, oxides, sulfates, and salts in varying proportions [103].
Western China The western desert in China Aluminum, iron, magnesium, and scandium [132]
Eastern China Source regions to the northeast of the Tibetan Plateau Magnesium, aluminum, silicon, potassium, calcium and iron; Illite is the principal clay mineral, and quartz [132].
North America Central US, deserts of Arizona, cities of Yuma and Phoenix, New Mexico, Texas, and Canada during the Dust Bowl Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, cobalt, PM10 > 1000 μg m3 [133].
South America Argentine loess, Southern Ocean sediments and Antarctic dust, and Puna-Altiplano plateau Sandy silts [134].
South Africa Namibian desert lands, Kalahari, and Karoo Fine grained alluvial and lacustrine sediments [135].