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Table 4 Mean Direct and Indirect Costs Per Month Per Working Patient

From: Persistent Allergic Rhinitis and the XPERT Study

  Placebo Mean € (95% CI) (N= 196) Levocetirizine (5 mg) Mean € (95% CI) (N= 186) Difference versus Placebo P
Direct costs     
   Total direct medical costs for PER 5.32€ (4.43, 6.42) 16.81€ (15.94, 18.13) 11.50€ (10.06, 13.03) <0.001
   Total direct medical costs for comorbidities 2.72€ (1.82, 4.20) 1.77€ (1.14, 3.04) −0.96€ (−2.60, 0.40) 0.18
Indirect costs     
   Absenteeism 45.70€ (32.02, 75.00) 18.57€ (13.75, 26.00) −27.14€ (−55.78, −12.10) <0.001
   Presenteeism 106.54€ (86.97, 132.86) 71.04€ (56.16, 92.43) −35.50€ (−65.21, −7.01) 0.02
Total costs 160.27€ (129.93, 204.54) 108.18€ (91.55, 131.78) −52.09€ (−98.18, −13)