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Table 1 Classification of Urticaria Subtypes (Presenting With Wheals and/or Angioedema) Based on the Different Eliciting Stimuli

From: Diagnosis and Treatment of Urticaria and Angioedema: A Worldwide Perspective

Types Subtypes Definition
Spontaneous urticaria Acute spontaneous urticaria Spontaneous wheals and/or angioedema < 6 wk
  Chronic spontaneous urticaria Spontaneous wheals and/or angioedema > 6 wk
Urticarias induced by physical agents Cold contact urticaria Eliciting factor: cold objects/air/fluids/wind
  Delayed pressure urticaria Eliciting factor: vertical pressure (wheals arising with a 3-12 h latency)
  Heat contact urticaria Eliciting factor: localized heat
  Solar urticaria Eliciting factor: UV and/or visible light
  Urticaria factitia/dermographic urticaria Eliciting factor: mechanical shearing forces (wheals arising after 1-5 min)
  Vibratory urticaria/angioedema Eliciting factor: vibratory forces, e.g. pneumatic hammer
Other inducible urticarias Aquagenic urticaria Eliciting factor: water
  Cholinergic urticaria Elicitation by increase of body core temperature due to physical exercises, spicy food
  Contact urticaria Elicitation by contact with urticariogenic substance
  Exercise-induced anaphylaxis/urticaria Eliciting factor: physical exercise
  1. Modified with permission from Zuberbier et al [4]. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons.