Basic management of anaphylaxis. This figure summarizes the basic initial treatment which is relatively inexpensive to implement and should be possible even in a low resource environment. Steps 4, 5 and 6 should be performed promptly and simultaneously as soon as anaphylaxis is diagnosed. Resuscitation guidelines recommend initiating cardiopulmonary resuscitation with chest compressions only (hands-only) before giving rescue breaths. In adults, chest compressions should be performed at a rate of 100-120/minute and a depth of 5-6 cm. In children, the rate should be at least 100 compressions/minute at a depth of 5 cm (4 cm in infants). If precious minutes are lost early in the treatment of an acute anaphylactic episode, subsequent management can become more difficult ([2, 22–25, 32, 93–99]).